The Hastert Rule is an informal policy among the House Republican leadership designed to limit the debate on bills that don't have support from a majority of its conference. The rule forbids any legislation that doesn't have support from a "majority of the majority" from coming up for a vote on the House floor.
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The Hastert Rule is named for former Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, a Republican from Illinois who served as the chamber's longest-serving speaker, from 1998 until his resignation in 2007. But previous Republican speakers of the House followed the same guiding principle, including former U.S. Rep. Newt Gingrich.
Criticism of the Hastert Rule
Critics of the Hastert Rule say it's too rigid and limits debate on important national issues while issues favored by Republicans get attention. They also blame the Hastert Rule for spiking House action on any legislation passed in a bipartisan fashion in the U.S. Senate. The Hastert Rule was blamed, for example, for holding up House votes on the farm bill and immigration reform in 2013.
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Hastert himself attempted to distance himself from the rule during the government shutdown of 2013, when Republican House Speaker John Boehner refused to allow a vote on a measure funding federal government operations under the belief that a conservative bloc of the GOP conference was opposed to it.
Hastert told The Daily Beast that the so-called Hastert Rule wasn't really set in stone. “Generally speaking, I needed to have a majority of my majority, at least half of my conference. This wasn’t a rule … The Hastert Rule is kind of a misnomer.” He added of Republicans under his leadership: “If we had to work with Democrats, we did.”
Nonetheless, Hastert is on the record saying the following during his tenure as speaker:
"On occasion, a particular issue might excite a majority made up mostly of the minority. Campaign finance is a particularly good example of this phenomenon. The job of speaker is not to expedite legislation that runs counter to the wishes of the majority of his majority."
Norman Ornstein of the American Enterprise Institute has called the Hastert Rule detrimental in that it puts party ahead of the House as a whole, and therefore the will of the people. As House speakers, he said in 2004, "You are the party leader, but you are ratified by the whole House. You are a constitutional officer."
Support for the Hastert Rule
Conservative advocacy groups including the Conservative Action Project have argued that the Hastert Rule should be made written policy by the House Republican Conference so the party can remain in good standing with the people who elected them to office.
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"Not only will this rule prevent bad policy being passed against the wishes of the Republican majority, it will strengthen the hand of our leadership in negotiations – knowing that legislation cannot pass the House without significant Republican support," wrote former Attorney General Edwin Meese and a group of likeminded, prominent conservatives.
Such concerns, however, are merely partisan and the Hastert Rule remains an unwritten principle guiding Republican House speakers.
Adherence to the Hastert Rule
A New York Times analysis of adherence to the Hastert Rule found all Republican House speakers had violated it at one point or another. Boehner had allowed House bills to come up for a vote even through they didn't have support from a majority of the majority.
Also in violation of the Hastert Rule at least a dozen times over his career as speaker?
Dennis Hastert himself.